karelian mushroom patties from 1930s / 1930-luvun karjalaisia sienipihvejä (suomalaiset oppi sienestämään vasta 1940-1950 luvun vaihteilla)
- 350g mushrooms / sieniä
- 1 tablespoon potato starch / 1 rkl perunajauhoja
- 2 small raw potato / pientä raakaa perunaa
- salt / suolaa
carrot buns / porkkanasämpylöitä
- 5 dl water / vettä
- 1 teaspoon salt / tl suolaa
- yeast / hiivaa
- 2 smashed carrot / 2 porkkanaa muussina
- wheat flour / vehnäjauhoja
Da Yooper Creation Story (original author unknown):
In da beginning dere was nuttin, see.
Den on da first day God created da UP, eh?
On da second day He created da partidge, da deer, da bear, da fish, an da ducks ya know.
On da third day He said, ”Let dere be YOOPERS to roam da UP.”
On da fourth day He created da udder world down below and on da fifth day He said, ”Let dere be TROLLS to live in da world down below.”
On da sixth day He created DA BRIDGE so da TROLLS would have a way to get to Heaven, see.
God saw it was good and on da seventh day He went huntin!! (Simon 2006: 132)
Say ya to da U.P., eh!
sow-na - sauna
Some common features of Yooper English in the U.P.
Yooper differs from standard English primarily because of the linguistic background of settlers to the area. The majority of people living in the Upper Peninsula are of either Finnish, French Canadian, Cornish, Scandinavian, German, or Native American descent.
- Canadian raising
- Use of German/Scandinavian "ja" as "yeah" or "yes," spelled "ya."
- Tendency towards intonation that stresses the first syllable of each word, which is an influence of Finnish spoken by many immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- /w/ sometimes becomes /v/, for example, /ˈkiːvənɔː/ for Keweenaw. This is an example of language transfer, where immigrant languages have affected the variety of English spoken in the area. This feature is especially found among residents born before 1950 and in the western region of the U.P.
- Ending of sentences in "Eh." Used at end of sentences with the expectation of receiving an affirmative response or as another word for "huh." ("So, you're /jɛr/ goin' out t'nide, eh?"), or to add emphasis to a statement, "That's a pretty dress, eh." "Eh" is often associated with Canadian English. "Heh" is used interchangeably and perhaps more often among younger speakers.
- Replacement of dental fricatives, /ð/ and /θ/, like in "this" and "thigh," with alveolar stops/d/ and /t/, so then (/ðɛn/) becomes den(/dɛn/) and thigh (/θaɪ/) often becomes tie(/tʰaɪ/), etc.
- In some cases, deletion of "to the" has been observed, e.g., "I'm going store," "We went mall," and "We go Green Bay." This is an influence from Finnish, which doesn't have the articles "a," "an," or "the", and the preposition "to" is replaced by the illative and allative cases, which, being absent from English, are simply deleted (cf. FinnishMenemme Green Bayhin).
- The word "boat" is sometimes given two syllables. (bo-ut)
- Words such as "pank" (to make compact, pat down), "chuk" or "chook" (a knit winter cap, from Canadian French "tuque" [tsʏk]), "choppers" (long-sleeved mittens, sometimes with removable finger flaps, often made of deerskin), "swampers" (boots with rubber bottoms and leather uppers), "pasty" (pronounced with a short a), "bakery" (baked goods), "make wood" (cut or chop wood), "snow scoop" or "yooper scooper" (a metal implement for "moving snow"), "wa" (instead of wow) and pronunciations such as "grodge" (garage), "crick" (creek), "ruts" (roots) and "ruf" (roof) to rhyme with "hood".
- Replacing the "-ing" at the end of certain words with "-een" (doing becomes "do-een", happening becomes "happen-een", something becomes "some-theen"), or with the Cornish characteristic of just "-n" and ins "cook'n" or "walk'n".
- Deletion of the object of the preposition. Example: Instead of saying "Would you like to come with us?" A Yooper might say "Would you like to come with?" This may be an influence from German, which has similar structures available in its grammar.
- Saying "I'm gonna go by your house" when really meaning they are going to come visit. While somewhat archaic, this is fairly common in other Wisconsin dialects (such as the Milwaukee dialect). In this case the false friend between the English word "by" (adjacent to) and the German word "bei" (at/to) resulted in a new English sentence structure.
- "Towards" is favored over "toward". The former is usually favored in British English while the latter is favored in American English.
- Tendency to replace a short a with a long a, such that words like bag and rag are spoken like bayg and rayg. Interestingly, the short e in the word beg is also spoken like bayg so that there is no difference in sound between the words bag and beg.
- Yoopers use "pop" for a carbonated beverage. "Soda" is either seltzer, club soda, or effervescent tonic water. They also use "ant" instead of "aunt."
- Common Finnish words are often used in conversation even if the communicants are not of Finnish descent. For instance, "Mitä," when responding, "What?" "Maitoa" (milk), "kahvia" (coffee), "leipää" (bread), "poika" (boy), "tyttö" (girl), "hyvää päivä" (good day), "hyvästit" (good-bye), "isä" (father), "äiti" (mother).
thinnest 12 cm, indoor wall recommendation 20 cm